what is observational learning in psychology
Then, you must be able to perform the behavior that you observed and committed to memory; this is reproduction. Take kittens for example. He is wealthy, and considered very loyal and good looking. His experiments looked at young primates and children as they observed people solving small tasks. One of his independent variables was whether or not the adult was hostile or aggressive toward the Bobo doll, so for some children the adults acted aggressively (treatment condition) and for others they did not (control condition 1) and for yet other children there were no adults at all (control condition 2). For example, in a study of social learning in chimpanzees, researchers gave juice boxes with straws to two groups of captive chimpanzees. Observational learning is the process of learning by watching the behaviors of others. Previous sections of this module focused on classical and operant conditioning, which are forms of associative learning. Bandura is certainly one of the most important psychologists to study observational learning, but he is not the only one. His goal is to help people improve their lives by understanding how their brains work. In imitation, a person simply copies what the model does. After watching your coworker get chewed out by your boss for coming in late, you start leaving home 10 minutes earlier so that you won’t be late. First, you must be focused on what the model is doing—you have to pay attention. The person performing the behavior is known as the model, and the learner is known as the observer. As soon as the child started to enjoy playing with the toys, the experimenter said something. Examples of observational learning are all around us! Bandura identified three kinds of models: live, verbal, and symbolic. Some studies suggest that violent television shows, movies, and video games may also have antisocial effects (Figure 3) although further research needs to be done to understand the correlational and causational aspects of media violence and behavior. Watch the following to see a portion of the famous Bobo doll experiment, including an interview with Albert Bandura. The antisocial effects of observational learning are also worth mentioning. It is a behavioral theory that challenges previous theories of behavioral psychology. On the left, you see the two modeling conditions: aggression by the model in phase 1 or no aggression by the model in phase 1. This, again, might seem like common sense. Your email address will not be published. The main idea is that children observe and learn from their parents, even their parents’ morals, so be consistent and toss out the old adage “Do as I say, not as I do,” because children tend to copy what you do instead of what you say. In society, children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. The behavioural psychology described three types of learning: Classical Conditioning, Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning. Set-up of the Bobo Doll experiment. There are differences between how chimpanzees and humans learn through observation. Observational learning is an important area in the field of psychology and behavior science more generally. Figure 2. This is known as observational learning. You learn a general rule that you can apply to other situations. When the first group, the “dippers,” observed the second group, “the suckers,” what do you think happened? Contents Albert Bandura Observational Learning Modeling And Imitation Shaping Vicarious Reinforcement Stages Of Observational Learning Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation The Bobo Doll Study The social learning theory is a theory developed by Dr. Albert Bandura in the 1960’s. In one research, it was seen that The behaviorists believed that after conditioning took place, certain stimuli would result in an automatic response. Observational learning, method of learning that consists of observing and modeling another individual’s behavior, attitudes, or emotional expressions. Each child was shown into a room where an adult was already sitting near the Bobo doll. Next, you must be able to retain, or remember, what you observed; this is retention. These findings may not be surprising, given that a child graduating from high school has been exposed to around 200,000 violent acts including murder, robbery, torture, bombings, beatings, and rape through various forms of media (Huston et al., 1992). All of the “dippers” in the first group switched to sucking through the straws directly. If you saw that the model was reinforced for her behavior, you will be more motivated to copy her. Nowadays, the idea of observational learning seems obvious. Bandura’s theory says that this is only one part of how we learn and perform behaviors. These puzzle pieces formed a bridge that connected traditional ideas of conditioning to cognitive processes. However, this adult worked inconspicuously in a corner and interacted with the child as little as possible. This is called vicarious punishment. Bandura studied the impact of an adult’s behavior on the behavior of children who saw them. We tend to do what we know. What are the implications of this study? This spider monkey learned to drink water from a plastic bottle by seeing the behavior modeled by a human. Modelling When a person performs a behaviour and is seen by another person, they are modelling the behaviour for them. Modification, adaptation, and original content. Retention of details 1. Figure 4. These acts included hitting and punching the Bobo doll. Claire was horrified, realizing that Anna was imitating her mother. Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. Observational learning, also called social learning theory, occurs when an observer’s behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model. (credit a: modification of work by Tony Cecala; credit b: modification of work by Andrew Hyde). Let them see you reading. Sadly, it’s a vicious cycle that’s difficult to break. In the 1960s, they were just making their way into academic psychology. Just because a person knows how to make a tiramisu does not mean that certain stimuli will automatically cause them to get into the kitchen. Parents in particular should take note of this finding. As you saw from the example of Claire at the beginning of this section, her daughter viewed Claire’s aggressive behavior and copied it. It allowed psychologists to ask questions about what makes us human. Bandura described specific steps in the process of modeling that must be followed if learning is to be successful: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. What is something you have learned how to do after watching someone else? As demonstrated in his classic "Bobo Doll" experiments, people will imitate the actions of others without direct reinforcement. Albert Bandura is the psychologist most linked with the term Observational learning. Psychologists like Bandura added another “hoop” for people to jump through before behaviors were performed. There are a number of learning theories, such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning , that emphasize how direct experience, reinforcement, or punishment lead to learning. It is classified as a form of social learning, and instead of reinforcement the learning occurs through social role models like parent, teacher, sibling, or a friend. Figure 1. Figure 3. The more often someone watches a video on how to make tiramisu, the more likely the information will be stored in their memory. Like Tolman, whose experiments with rats suggested a cognitive component to learning, psychologist Albert Bandura’s ideas about learning were different from those of strict behaviorists. Psychologists are working to understand this dynamic. Later research has shown that we are more likely to imitate people that we deem as “successful” than imitate who we don’t think is successful. Observational learning and learning through imitation are just small pieces of a larger puzzle that have a significant impact on our behavior, attitudes, and personality. Keep books in your home. Nowadays, the idea of observational learning seems obvious. Using a complex system that we won’t go into here, the experimenters counted the number of various types of behaviors that the child showed during this period. Observational psychology is an interdisciplinary system of study that usually falls under the banner of the psychology of learning. Observational learning is a process in which learning occurs through observing and imitating others. This room contained a variety of toys. Did you ever use a tutorial to learn how to put o… After a child had watched the adult in phase 1, he or she was taken to another room, one that also contained a lot of attractive, fun toys and was told that is was fine to play with the toys. 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